On November 20, 2016, the heads of state of the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum reaffirmed the APEC Cross-Border Privacy Rules (CBPR) system. The APEC CBPR system was initially endorsed by the APEC economies in the 2011 Leaders’ Declaration. The current participants are the United States, Mexico, Canada and Japan. The system is a regional, multilateral, cross-border data transfer mechanism and enforceable privacy code of conduct developed for businesses by the 21 APEC member economies. The CBPRs implement the nine APEC Privacy Principles set forth in the APEC Privacy Framework.