As of November 30, 2012, a total of 20 states require the use of E-Verify for at least some public and/or private employers: Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. Eighteen of these requirements were through legislation and two, Florida and Idaho, by executive orders. Two states, California and Illinois, currently limit the use of E-Verify. Other states are exploring alternatives to E-Verify or identifying safe harbor provisions. North Dakota is the only state to mandate a Legislative Management study on the feasibility of mandating the use of E-Verify. See the state chart below and state by state summary for more information.